Federal Housing Finance Agency Print

Research

​Research

 

Our economists conduct research on a range of topics in housing finance, including analyzing data and uncovering emerging trends.  In addition to presenting their research to policy makers, they share their research at academic conferences and publish in journals and other scholarly outlets.  Our work enables those interested in housing finance to make decisions based on the best information available.

In particular, our researchers focused on housing trends in house prices, housing market conditions, and mortgage lending activity.  In addition, we analyze the risk and capital adequacy of the housing government-sponsored enterprises and publish papers aimed at improving public understanding of the mortgage finance system.

See FHFA's Copyright and Permissions Notice.

 Papers

 

 

Working Paper 19-02: A Quarter Century of Mortgage Risk26282<h4>Abstract&#58;</h4><font color="#000000" face="Times New Roman" size="3"></font><p>This paper provides a comprehensive account of the evolution of default risk for newly originated home purchase loans over the past quarter century. We bring together several data sources to produce this history, including loan-level data for the entire Enterprise (Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) book. We use these data to track a large number of loan characteristics and a summary measure of risk, the stressed default rate. Among the many results in the paper, we show that mortgage risk had already risen in the 1990s, planting seeds of the financial crisis well before the actual event. Our results also cast doubt on explanations of the crisis that focus on low-credit-score borrowers. The aggregate series we present in this paper are available for download at https&#58;/www.fhfa.gov/papers/wp1902.aspx. </p><p>Note&#58; These indices are works in progress and all data, tables, figures, and other results in this working paper are subject to change. Earlier versions of this paper were posted in January and March 2019 under the title “Mortgage Risk Since 1990.”</p>10/17/2019 7:32:12 PMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / Working Paper 19-02: A Quarter Century of Mortgage Risk William Larson (FHFA), Morris Davis (Rutgers), Stephen Oliner (American 4642https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
Working Paper 19-01: The Price of Residential Land for Counties, ZIP codes, and Census Tracts in the United States26065<h4>Abstract&#58;</h4> <font color="#000000" face="Times New Roman" size="3"> </font> <p>We use data on the appraised land value from a data set of more than 14 million appraisals to produce annual estimates of the average price of land used in single-family housing. We generate a balanced panel of data on land value for more than 1,000 counties, 9,000 ZIP codes, and 19,000 census tracts in the United States between 2012 and 2018, covering 87% of the population and 85% of all single-family homes.&#160; A number of key findings emerge from these data&#58; for example, land prices in most areas increased between 2012 and 2018; land prices tended to rise faster than house prices; and on average, land's share of home value increased in large cities and declined in small cities.&#160; The land prices we generate are intended to aid researchers in Urban and Regional Economics and policy-makers monitoring the health of the nation's single-family housing market and are available for free download at https&#58;//www.fhfa.gov/papers/wp1901.aspx.<sup> </sup></p><p> <span class="ms-rteStyle-References">Note&#58; These indices are works in progress and all data, tables, figures, and other results in this working paper are subject to change.<br></span></p> <font color="#000000" face="Times New Roman" size="3"> </font>10/22/2019 8:33:28 PMWilliam Larson (FHFA), Jessica Shui (FHFA), Morris Davis (Rutgers), Stephen Oliner (AEI We use data on the appraised land value from a data set of more than 14 million appraisals 14696https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
Working Paper 18-04: A New Home Affordability Estimate 25655<h4 style="font-size&#58;13px;"> <span aria-hidden="true"><span aria-hidden="true"></span></span>​Abstract&#58;</h4><p>We offer a new home affordability estimate (HAE) that focuses on the share of housing stock that is affordable to certain households in the United States.&#160; The methodology considers affordability as it relates to funds available for down payments, initial monthly housing-related payments, and future projections of household income and costs.&#160; The HAE builds upon existing industry statistics in two ways.&#160; First, existing affordability indexes make certain assumptions for one or more of those funding factors.&#160; We can observe actual investment and expense values.&#160; Second, existing industry statistics consider “typical” families that earn the median household income level.&#160; The HAE is sufficiently more flexible for evaluating families at different places in the income distribution.&#160; This paper discusses the assumptions and processes for creating the HAE indexes; compares the national time series for very low-income, low-income, and median-income families; and then documents trends across metropolitan areas.&#160; We offer the data for public usage and leave commentary about implications to future research. </p><div>Please cite this working paper when using the HAE data which can be downloaded with these following links&#58;​<br></div><div><br></div><div><ul><li>​<span style="color&#58;#444444;font-family&#58;inherit;font-size&#58;inherit;font-weight&#58;inherit;"><a title="National HAE data" href="/DataTools/Downloads/Documents/Affordability/HAE_national.xlsx" target="_blank">National</a></span><br></li><li> <span style="color&#58;#444444;font-family&#58;inherit;font-size&#58;inherit;font-weight&#58;inherit;"><a title="MSA HAE data" href="/DataTools/Downloads/Documents/Affordability/HAE_metro.xlsx" target="_blank">Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs)</a>​</span></li></ul></div><p> <br>&#160;</p><p> <br>&#160;</p>12/14/2018 7:55:20 PMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / Working Paper 18-04: A New Home Affordability Estimate What Share of Housing Stock Can Families Afford 4000https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
Working Paper 18-03: Appraisal Accuracy and Automated Valuation Models in Rural Areas22974<p> <strong class="ms-rteFontSize-3">Abstract&#58;</strong></p><p>Accurate and unbiased property value estimates are essential to credit risk management. Along with loan amount, they determine a mortgage’s loan-to-value ratio, which captures the degree of homeowner equity and is a key determinant of borrower credit risk. For home purchases, lenders generally require an independent appraisal, which, in addition to a home’s sales price, is used to calculate a value for the underlying collateral. A number of empirical studies have shown that property appraisals tend to be biased upwards, and over 90 percent of the time, either confirm or exceed the associated contract price. Our data suggest that appraisal bias is particularly pervasive in rural areas where over 25 percent of rural properties are appraised at more than five percent above contract price. Given this significant upward bias, we examine a host of alternate valuation techniques to more accurately estimate rural property values. We then include these alternate value estimates when modeling delinquencies and examine their explanatory power. </p><p>A revised version of this paper has undergone external peer-review and is published in an academic journal with open (free) access. Citation&#58; Alexander N. Bogin, Jessica Shui. 2019. &quot;Appraisal Accuracy and Automated Valuation Models in Rural Areas.&quot; The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 1-13. <a href="https&#58;//link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11146-019-09712-0" target="_blank">https&#58;//link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11146-019-09712-0</a></p>9/6/2019 2:47:19 PMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / Working Paper 18-03: Appraisal Accuracy and Automated Valuation Models in Rural Areas N. Bogin, Senior Economist; Jessica Shui 1444https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
Working Paper 18-02: House Price Markups and Mortgage Defaults22973<h4 style="font-size&#58;13px;font-style&#58;normal;"> <span class="ms-rteThemeForeColor-2-0" style="line-height&#58;22px;font-style&#58;normal;"> <span style="line-height&#58;22px;font-style&#58;normal;">*Revised May&#160;2019</span>​</span></h4>&#160;​ <h4 style="font-size&#58;13px;font-style&#58;normal;">​​Abstract&#58;</h4><p style="font-style&#58;normal;"><span style="line-height&#58;22px;">The transaction price of identical housing units can vary widely due to heterogeneity in buyer and seller preferences, matching, and search costs, generating &quot;markups&quot;&#160;above or below the average market price.&#160; These markups are mean reverting upon subsequent transactions, suggesting dynamics that are unrelated to market fundamentals. We show markups are an important driver of mortgage defaults and credit losses conditional on default even after accounting for collateral coverage (loan-to-value ratio) and a comprehensive set of other covariates. Our findings suggest standard collateral coverage estimation may be inaccurate, with implications for credit portfolio risk assessment.</span></p><p style="font-style&#58;normal;">This research was selected as the best paper in 2018 in real estate valuation by the American Real Estate Society.​<br></p>5/4/2019 1:07:53 AMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / Working Paper 18-02: House Price Markups and Mortgage Defaults Paul E. Carrillo, George Washington University; William M. Doerner 2332https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
Working Paper 18-01: Are Appraisal Management Companies Value-Adding? – Stylized Facts from AMC and Non-AMC Appraisals22972<p> <strong>Abstract&#58;</strong>​<br> In this paper, we study whether there are any systematic quality differences between appraisals associated and unassociated with appraisal management companies (AMCs). We find that compared to non-AMC appraisals, AMC appraisals on average share a similar degree of overvaluation despite being more prone to contract price confirmation and super-overvaluation. AMC appraisals also share a similar propensity for mistakes, despite employing a greater number of comparable properties. Our evaluation employs relatively simple statistical comparisons, but the results indicate no clear evidence of any systematic quality differences between appraisals associated and unassociated with AMCs.<br></p>3/26/2018 2:41:06 PMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / Working Paper 18-01: Are Appraisal Management Companies Value-Adding Jessica Shui, Economist; Shriya Murthy, Economist 1021https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
NMDB Staff Working Paper 18-02: First-Time Homebuyer Counseling and the Mortgage Selection Experience in the United States: Evidence from the National Survey of Mortgage Originations22967<p>​The existing literature on homebuyer education and counseling (HEC) consists almost exclusively of evaluations of specific programs, generally using mortgage loan performance as the metric of success.&#160; This paper contributes to the literature in two ways.&#160; First, it provides evidence on the benefits of HEC to mortgage borrowers in aspects other than mortgage performance.&#160; Second, the paper evaluates HEC in general, not just one specific program.&#160; It does so by drawing from a nationally representative sample of all first-time homebuyers in the United States who took out a mortgage in 2013 and 2014.&#160; The study data comes from the National Survey of Mortgage Originations (NSMO), a new survey co-sponsored by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) and the <span style="font-size&#58;11pt;font-family&#58;&quot;times new roman&quot;, serif;">Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection</span> (<span style="font-size&#58;11pt;font-family&#58;&quot;times new roman&quot;, serif;">BCFP</span>​).&#160; The authors find that 14 percent of a nationally representative sample of first-time homebuyers reported receiving some form of HEC.&#160; Using two different matching estimation techniques (propensity score and coarsened exact matching) and ordinary least squares, the authors​ find that first-time homebuyers who reported receiving HEC also reported better mortgage knowledge, higher incidence of comparing final costs to the Good Faith Estimate (GFE), higher incidence of selecting a mortgage based on cost, and higher level of satisfaction with mortgage terms and the mortgage process.</p>10/25/2018 8:46:22 PMRobert Argento1, Lariece Brown1, Sergei Koulayev2, Grace Li3, Marina Myhre4, Forrest Pafenberg5, Saty Patrabansh5 1Freddie Mac, 2Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 2221https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
NMDB Staff Working Paper 18-01: Mortgage Experiences of Rural Borrowers in the United States: Insights from the National Survey of Mortgage Originations22966<p>To date, research on rural mortgage markets in the United States has been limited by a lack of data on the specific mortgage experiences of borrowers living in rural areas.&#160; To fill this data gap, the National Survey of Mortgage Originations (NSMO) conducted a survey that oversampled people who took out mortgages in completely rural counties in 2014.&#160; This paper reports results from this survey, contrasting the characteristics, experiences, and loan terms of mortgage borrowers in completely rural counties to those of borrowers in metropolitan and other non-metropolitan areas.&#160; Completely rural counties are those with no urban cluster or an urban population less than 2,500.&#160; We find that borrowers in completely rural counties paid slightly higher interest rates on average and were less satisfied that their mortgage was the one with the best terms to fit their needs than borrowers in other areas.&#160; These results persist even after controlling for income, credit quality, and other borrower characteristics.&#160; Completely rural borrowers were less likely than other borrowers to be satisfied with the mortgage closing process, the timeliness of disclosures, and the disclosure documents themselves.&#160; Finally, compared with borrowers in more urban areas, borrowers in completely rural areas tend to be less confident or knowledgeable about some details of mortgages, and they are more likely to initiate contact with their lender.</p>10/25/2018 8:32:24 PMTim Critchfield1, Jaya Dey2, Nuno Mota3, and Saty Patrabansh4 1Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, 2Freddie Mac, 3Fannie Mae, and 4Federal Housing Finance Agency 1279https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
The Size of the Affordable Mortgage Market: 2018-2020 Enterprise Single-Family Housing Goals22943<p>​In establishing benchmarks for the single-family home purchase housing goals for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (the Enterprises), the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is required to measure the size of the mortgage market.&#160; FHFA has recently revised the market forecast models to include better specifications and new macroeconomic variables that reflect factors that impact the affordable housing market.&#160; This paper documents the statistical forecast models that the FHFA modeling team developed as part of the process for establishing the benchmark levels for the Enterprises for 2018 through 2020.</p>3/14/2018 8:53:59 PMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / The Size of the Affordable Mortgage Market: 2018-2020 Enterprise Single-Family Housing Goals Ken Lam, Jay Schultz, and Padmasini 2370https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx
Working Paper 17-03: Under What Circumstances do First-time Homebuyers Overpay? – An Empirical Analysis Using Mortgage and Appraisal Data22971<h4 style="font-size&#58;13px;"> <span aria-hidden="true"></span>​Abstract&#58;</h4><p>In this paper, we study whether first-time homebuyers overpay for their homes and whether the magnitude of overpayment varies with the diligence of appraisers involved. We investigate whether sales price renegotiation mitigates the overpayment problem and assess the connection between renegotiation and the characteristics of the appraisers involved in the underlying mortgage transactions. This research is among the first to contribute both theoretically and empirically to the existing literature on first-time homebuyers.<span style="font-family&#58;&quot;calibri&quot;,sans-serif;font-size&#58;11pt;"><span><font color="#000000" face="Calibri" size="3">&#160;</font></span></span></p><p><span style="font-family&#58;&quot;calibri&quot;,sans-serif;font-size&#58;11pt;"><span><font color="#000000" face="Calibri" size="3"></font></span></span>This paper was recognized with “Practitioner Research Awards” in 2017 by the American Real Estate Society. A revised version of this paper has undergone external peer-review and is published in an academic journal. Citation&#58; Jessica Shui, Shriya Murthy. 2019. &quot;Under What Circumstances do First-time Homebuyers Overpay?—An Empirical Analysis Using Mortgage and Appraisal Data.&quot; <em>Journal of Real Estate Research</em>, 41(1), 107-145. <a href="https&#58;//www.aresjournals.org/doi/abs/10.5555/0896-5803.41.1.107" target="_blank">https&#58;//www.aresjournals.org/doi/abs/10.5555/0896-5803.41.1.107</a></p>9/6/2019 2:47:56 PMHome / Policy, Programs & Research / Research / Working Paper 17-03: Under What Circumstances do First-time Homebuyers Overpay Jessica Shui, Economist; Shriya Murthy, Economist 1523https://www.fhfa.gov/PolicyProgramsResearch/Research/Pages/Forms/AllItems.aspxhtmlFalseaspx

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